Resources & References




A sampling of resources, supports and/or services you can leverage to improve Equity, Diversity, Inclusion and Access (EDIA) in the context of your new or existing EL (Experiential Learning) opportunity. This list is by no means exhaustive, and we welcome any and all suggestions on other resources that can be added.

To share your suggestions, please complete the following form — Advancing Equitable & Inclusive Experiential Learning Guide: Feedback/Resource Suggestions.

Faculty of Arts & Science Offices & Important Contacts
Divisional & Institutional Offices Supporting Experiential Learning
University of Toronto Equity & Related Offices
Additional University of Toronto Offices & Supports
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
Relevant Articles & Literature
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
Relevant Articles & Literature
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
University of Toronto Resources
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources
University of Toronto Resources
External Resources


Academica Group. (2016). Taking the Pulse of Work-Integrated Learning in Canada. Business / Higher Education Roundtable.

Allen, D., Strumbos, D., & Clay, J. (2014). Race, ethnicity, and service-learning: Understanding access and equity using a critical quantitative approach. In A. E. Traver & Z. P. Katz (Eds.), Service-learning at the American community college (pp. 95-110). Palgrave Macmillan US. DOI: 10.1057/9781137355737_7

Allen, J.J. (2018). Mapping Inequalities of Access to Employment and Quantifying Transport Poverty in Canadian Cities. University of Toronto Transportation Research Institute.

Antoine, A., Mason, R., Mason, R., Palahicky, S., & Rodriguez de France, C. (2018). Pulling Together: A Guide for Curriculum Developers. Victoria, BC: BCcampus.

Austin, M. J., & Zeh Rust, D. (2015). Developing an Experiential Learning Program: Milestones and Challenges. International Journal of Teaching & Learning in Higher Education, 27(1), 143-53.

Badgett, M.V., Holning, L., Sears, B., & Ho, D. (2007). Bias in the Workplace: Consistent Evidence of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Discrimination. The Williams Institute.

BasuMallick, C. (2020). What Is an Inclusive Workplace? Definition, Best Practices, and Tools. Toolbox.

Blakeney, A.M. (2005). Antiracist Pedagogy: Definition, Theory, and Professional Development. Journal of Curriculum and Pedagogy, 2(1), 119-132, DOI: 10.1080/15505170.2005.10411532

Bowen, T. (2019). Examining Students’ Perspectives on Gender Bias in Their Work-Integrated Learning Placements. Higher Education Research & Development, 39(3), 411-24. DOI: 10.1080/07294360.2019.1677568

Brabazon, H., Esmail, J., Locklin, R., & Stirling, A. (2020). Beyond Employability: Defamiliarizing Work-Integrated Learning with Community-Engaged Learning. Engaged Scholar Journal, 5(3), 21-41. DOI: 10.15402/esj.v5i3.70364

Brookfield, S. (1998). Critically reflective practice. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 18(4), 197-205. DOI:10.1002/chp.134018040

Buglione, S.M., & Wittman, A., (2014). Connecting Past and Present: Nontraditional Learner and Practitioner Experiences through Service-Learning. In A.E. Traver & Z. Perel Katz (Eds.), Service-Learning at the American Community College (pp. 81–93). Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: 10.1057/9781137355737_6

Burrows, T. Student Learning Outcomes in an Inclusive Environment. University of South Dakota.

Caldwell, J. (2020). Equity in Education: Removing Barriers to Online Learning. BCcampus.

Carnegie Mellon University. (n.d.). Sample group project tools.

Casebeer, C., Eger, S. & Waters, R. (2017). Student (Un)Employment in Canada. Canadian Alliance of Student Associations.

Castelli, F. R., & Sarvary, M. A. (2021). Why students do not turn on their video cameras during online classes and an equitable and inclusive plan to encourage them to do so. Ecology and Evolution, 11(8), 3565-3576. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.7123

Centre for Innovation in Campus Mental Health. (n.d.). Understanding Why Curriculum Design and the Learning Environment Need to Reflect Mental Health.

Center for Urban Education, Rossier School of Education. (2020). Equity-Minded Inquiry Series: Data Tools. University of Southern California.

Clark, N., Drolet, J., Mathews, N., Walton, P., Rene’Tamburro, P., Derrick, J., Michaud, V., Armstrong, J., & Arnouse, M. (2010). Decolonizing Field Education: ‘Melq’ilwiye’ Coming Together: An Exploratory Study in the Interior of British Columbia. University of Windsor.

Cockayne, D.G. (2018). Underperformative Economies: Discrimination and Gendered Ideas of Workplace Culture in San Francisco’s Digital Media Sector. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 50(4), 756–72. DOI: 10.1177/0308518X18754883

Cooper, L., Orrell, J., & Bowden, M. (2010). Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice. Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203854501

Co-operative Education and Work-Integrated Learning Canada. (n.d.). What is Work-Integrated Learning (WIL)?.

Dean, B.A., & Clements, M.D. (2010). Managing the transition from the classroom to the workplace: Beyond the duty of care, 226-230.

Dunn, L. A., Schier, M. A., Hiller, J. E., & Harding, I. H. (2016). Eligibility requirements for work-integrated learning programs: Exploring the implications of using grade point averages for student participation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 17(3), 295-308.

Emslie, M. (2009). Supporting students who are sexually harassed on placement. Journal of Practice Teaching & Learning, 9(3), 6-25.

Fairlie, R.W., Hoffman, R.W., & Oreopoulos, P. (2014). A Community College Instructor Like Me: Race and Ethnicity Interactions in the Classroom. American Economic Review, 140(8), 2567-2591. DOI: 10.1257/aer.104.8.2567

Gatto, L.E., Pearce, H., Antonie, L., & Plesca, M. (2020). Work Integrated Learning Resources for Students with Disabilities: Are Post-Secondary Institutions in Canada Supporting This Demographic to Be Career Ready? Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, 11(1), 125-143. DOI: 10.1108/HESWBL-08-2019-0106

Gair, S., Miles, D., Savage, D., & Zuchowski, I. (2015). Racism unmasked: The experiences of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in social work field placements. Australian Social Work, 68(1), 32–48. DOI: 10.1080/0312407X.2014.928335  

Green, J. (2019, February 19). Arts & Science Anti-Black Racism Training [Presentation]. Toronto.

Handshake. (2020). How to Remove Hiring Bias from the Recruiting Process. Handshake Blog.

Harvey, M., Walkerden, G., Semple A., McLachlan, K., & Lloyd, K. (2016). A Song and a Dance: Being Inclusive and Creative in Practicing and Documenting Reflection for Learning. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 13(2), 1-17.

Hill Collins, Patricia & Bilge, S. (2016). Intersectionality. Polity Press.

Hora, M. & Chen, Z. (2020). Problematizing College Internships: Exploring Issues with Access, Program Design and Developmental Outcomes. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 21 (3), 235-252.

Howard, P.N., Busch, L., Sheets, P. (2010). Comparing Digital Divides: Internet Access and Social Inequality in Canada and the United States. Canadian Journal of Communication, 35(1), 109-128. DOI: 10.22230/cjc.2010v35n1a2192

Indiana University Bloomington. (n.d.). Equitable Assignment Design.

Jackson, D., Rowbottom, D., Ferns, S., & McLaren, D. (2017). Employer understanding of Work-Integrated Learning and the challenges of engaging in work placement opportunities. Studies in Continuing Education, 39 (1), 35-51, DOI: 10.1080/0158037X.2016.1228624

Katrevich, A.V., & Aruguete, M. S. (2017). Recognizing challenges and predicting success in first-generation university students. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research, 18(2), 40-44.

Kendi, I. X. (2019). How to be an antiracist. One World.

Keung, N. (2021, February 24). International students aren’t making as much money as their Canadian classmates in the first years after graduation, report suggests. Toronto Star.

Khubchandani, A. (2008). Providing Reasonable Accommodations to Individuals with Disabilities in Internship Sites and Postdoctoral Internship Positions. American Psychological Association.

Kollar Dwyer M. (2021). 7 Skills That Make a Real Difference In Diversity And Inclusion. Forbes.

Kunkel, J. (2020, October 20). Can We Make WIL Programming More Inclusive? [Conference Presentation]. EWO Professional Development Virtual Conference Series 2020.

Kwenani, D. F., & Yu, X. (2018). Maximizing international students’ service-learning and community engagement experience: A case study of student voices on the benefits and barriers. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 22(4), 29-52.

Lake, E. (2021). A Case Study of Black Students’ Perception of Experiential Learning at PWIS. National Association of Colleges and Employers.

Lorde, A. (1995). Age, race, class, and sex: Women redefining difference. In J. Arthur & A. Shapiro (Eds.), Campus Wars: Multiculturalism and the Politics of Difference. Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780429038556-22

Love, B.J. (2010). Developing a Liberatory Consciousness. In M. Adams, W. Blumenfeld, C.R. Castaneda, H.W. Hackman, M.L. Peters & Z. Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for Diversity and Social Justice, 2nd Edition. Routledge.

Mackaway, J., & Winchester-Seeto, T. (2018). Deciding Access to Work-Integrated Learning: Human Resource Professionals as Gatekeepers. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 19(2), 141–-54.

Mackaway, J., Winchester-Seeto, T., & Rowe, A. (2013). Responding to student diversity: Strategies for placing work-integrated education students. Strategic Directions in Cooperative Education. New Zealand Association for Cooperative Education, Auckland, New Zealand.

Malatest, R.A. (2018). Barriers to Work-Integrated Learning Opportunities. Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

Mallozzi, R., & Drewery, D. (2019). Creating Inclusive Co-Op Workplaces: Insights from LGBTQ+ Students. International Journal of Work-Integrated Learning, 20(3), 219-28.

McCloy, U., & DeClou, L. (2013). Disability in Ontario: Postsecondary Education Participation Rates, Student Experience and Labour Market Outcomes. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

McMurtrie, B. (2020, June 18). 'We Can’t Ignore This Issue': How to Talk with Students about Racism. The Chronicle of Higher Education.

Meyer, E. (2015). When Culture Doesn’t Translate. Harvard Business Review.

Missingham. B.D. (2017). Asset-based learning and the pedagogy of community development, Community Development, 48(3), 339-350, DOI: 10.1080/15575330.2017.1291528

Mitchell, T.D. (2008). Traditional vs. Critical Service-Learning: Engaging the Literature to Differentiate Two Models. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 50-65.

Mitchell, T.D., Donahue, D.M., & Young-Law, C. (2012). Service Learning as a Pedagogy of Whiteness. Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(4), 612-29. DOI: 10.1080/10665684.2012.715534

Moore, E. (2019). From teaching content to teaching students: UDL as a vehicle for improving curriculum and praxis design. In S. Bracken & K. Novak (Eds.), Transforming in Higher Education Through Universal Design for Learning: An International Perspective. Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9781351132077

Najmabadi, S. (2017). Widening access to the “hidden curriculum”: Experiential learning helps students succeed, but those who would benefit the most don’t often get the chance. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 63(28). Gale OneFile: CPI.Q.

National Disability Authority. (n.d.). What is Universal Design.

Peach, D. Moore, K., Campbell, M., Winchester-Seeto, T., Ferns, S., Mackaway, J., & Groundwater, L. (2016). Building institutional capacity to enhance access participation and progression in Work Integrated Learning (WIL): Final Report 2015. Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching, Australia.

Pearson, C.A. & Daff, S. (2011). Collaborative delivery of work-integrated learning to Indigenous Australians in a remote community. Asia Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 125-145.

Phillips-Davis, C. (2021). Black in WIL [Panel Discussion]. Experiential and Work Integrated Learning Ontario.

Pop, C., & Brink, R. (2017).  Repositioning Work-Integrated Learning in Diverse Communities. Work-Integrated Learning in the 21st Century (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Vol. 32). Emerald Publishing Limited. DOI: 10.1108/S1479-367920170000032007

Rose, J., & Paisley, K. (2012). White Privilege in Experiential Educational: A Critical Reflection. Leisure Sciences, 34(2), 136-154. DOI: 10.1080/01490400.2012.652505

Ryan, J. (2010). Establishing Inclusion in a New School: The Role of Principal Leadership. Exceptionality Education International, 20(2). DOI: 10.5206/eei.v20i2.7660

Santiago-Ortiz, A. (2019). From Critical to Decolonizing Service-Learning: Limits and Possibilities of Social Justice-Based Approaches to Community Service-Learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 25(1), 43-54.

Sattler, P., & Peters, J. (2013). Work-Integrated Learning in Ontario’s Postsecondary Sector: The Experience of Ontario Graduates. Toronto: Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario.

Schilt, K. (2010). Just One of the Guys?: Transgender Men and the Persistence of Gender Inequality. University of Chicago Press.

Shepherd, S.M. (2019). Cultural awareness workshops: limitations and practical consequences. BMC Medical Education, 19(14). DOI: 10.1186/s12909-018-1450-5

Smith, M.S. (2011). The Language of Equity and Diversity in the Academy. Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences.

Stirling, A. (2019). Access & Accessibility. Experiential Learning Hub.

Stirling, A., Milne, A., & Goldman, A. (2020). A Mixed-Methods Examination of the Barriers and Facilitators to Kinesiology Students’ Engagement in Work Integrated Learning. CEWIUL Research Webinar Series Volume 3.

Stonewall. (2019). Delivering LGBT-Inclusive Higher Education: Academic provision, accommodation, catering, facilities, induction, recruitment, registry, societies, sports and student services.

Suskie, L. (2019). 6 Ways to Ensure Your Assessment Practices Are Fair and Unbiased. Wiley.

Taylor, A. Yochim, L., & Raykov, M. (2019). Service-Learning and First-Generation University Students: A Conceptual Exploration of the Literature. Journal of Experiential Education, 42(4), 349-363. DOI: 10.1177/1053825919863452

Tettey, W. (2019). Inspiring Inclusive Excellence. University of Toronto Scarborough News.

Tran, L. T., & Soejatminah, S. (2017). Integration of Work Experience and Learning for International Students: From Harmony to Inequality. Journal of Studies in International Education, 21(3), 261-277. DOI:10.1177/1028315316687012

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action.

University at Buffalo Curriculum, Assessment and Teaching Transformation. (n.d.). Equitable and Inclusive Teaching and Learning.

University of Saskatchewan Centre for Teaching and Learning. (n.d.). Learner and Context Analysis Template.

University of Toronto. (2017). Re-thinking Higher Education Curricula: Increasing Impact Through Experiential, Work-Integrated, and Community-Engaged Learning.

University of Toronto. (2020a). Information for Faculty and Academic Staff on Effective Accommodations for Placements, and Practicums.

University of Toronto. (2020b). Results of the National Survey of Student Engagement 2020: University of Toronto.

University of Toronto (n.d.). Accommodation: Academic.

University of Toronto, Career Exploration & Education. (2020, September 29). Diversifying Our Approach: Equity-Informed Career Development [Presentation].

University of Toronto, Centre for Teaching & Learning. (n.d.). CTSI Course Design Institute Pre-Work Package: Writing Learning Outcomes Using Bloom’s Taxonomy.

University of Toronto, Faculty of Arts & Science. (n.d.). Curriculum-Integrated Experiential Learning.

University of Waterloo. (2018a). Development of the Co-op Student Self-assessment Tool: Final Report.

University of Waterloo. (2018b). Cooperative Education Self-Study Guide: Enhancing the Accessibility of Your Co-operative Education Program.

Venditti, A. (2020, June 20). The Wage Gap Is Real But We Can Fix It. Medium.

Wall, T., Tran, L.T., Soejatminah, S. (2017). Inequalities and Agencies in Workplace Learning Experiences: International Student Perspectives. Vocations and Learning, 10(2), 141-156. DOI: 10.1007/s12186-016-9167-2

Winchester-Seeto, T., Mackaway, J., Peach, D., Moore, K., Ferns, S., and Campbell, M. (2015). Principles, Guidelines and Strategies for Inclusive WIL. Access, Participation and Progression in Work Integrated Learning. Australia: Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching.

York University. (n.d.). About the Inclusion Lens.

Zawadzki, M.J., Shields, S.A., Danube, C.L., & Swim, J.K. (2014). Reducing the Endorsement of Sexism Using Experiential Learning: The Workshop Activity for Gender Equity Simulation (WAGES). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38(1), 75-96. DOI: 10.1177/0361684313498573


This document was created by:

  • Gifty MacKay, MPH, Master of Public Health Practicum Student at the time of development
  • Ainsley Goldman, MEd, PhD Candidate, Experiential Learning Educational Developer
  • Sania Hameed, MEd, Experiential Learning Coordinator (Research & International)
  • Danielle Moed, MA, Experiential Learning Educational Developer (Term)
  • Vicki Lowes, PhD, Director, Experiential Learning & Outreach Support

This University-of-Toronto-tailored guide is adapted from the following chapter developed by the Faculty of Arts & Science Experiential Learning & Outreach Support Office, in collaboration with colleagues at the University of British Columbia, Okanagan College and University of Toronto Scarborough Arts & Science Co-op:

Goldman, A. S., MacKay, G., Lowes, V. L., Henville, L., Gillies, J., Jairam-Persaud, C., Soikie, S., Koffi, N. J. M., Shah, N., Walchli, J. (pending publication). Applying principles of equity, diversity, inclusion, and access in work-integrated learning. In K. Zegwaard & J. Pretti (Eds.), International Handbook for Work-Integrated Learning (3rd ed.). Routledge.

The content was created following an extensive review of the literature on Equity, Diversity, Inclusion and Access (EDIA) as it relates to experiential learning (EL), one-on-one or group interviews with 11 EL practitioners from all three U of T campuses (including instructors, faculty and staff), student input through a survey which received 121 responses, as well as consultation with EL practitioners from across Canada. The document was also reviewed by an additional 17 EL practitioners and colleagues working in the field of EDIA and student services across the University of Toronto. Special thanks to Bharat Saini, Director, Equity, Diversity and Inclusion, Faculty of Arts & Science, for his guidance and comprehensive review.