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Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences examines the physical, chemical, and biological processes that shape the Earth and its companions in the solar system. Programs in earth sciences provide students with a solid foundation in mathematics and science, along with specialized courses on the physics and chemistry of rocks and minerals, the internal and external processes that have moulded the surface of the planet, and the role of living organisms in geological processes. Note that all ES specialists programs are structured in such a way that they provide the knowledge requirements for professional registration with APGO.



  • Geology (specialist)
  • Geophysics (specialist)
  • Geoscience (major and minor options)
  • Environmental Geosciences (specialist)
  • Earth and Environmental Systems (major)


First-Year Courses

  • JEG 100H1 - Introduction to Physical Geography and Earth Sciences


Advice for First Year

Students who are interested in geology should take JEG 100H1 - Introduction to Physical Geography and Earth Sciences, which is a foundation course providing a general overview of the important concepts in geology. In addition, all geology programs require basic sciences, and these can be taken as various combinations of first-year courses in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics.


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