Economics deals with any issue arising out of the conflict between the demand for goods and services, and a limited supply of resources to satisfy those demands.

Undergraduate training in economics familiarizes students with the discipline of economic thinking, and equips them for intelligent appraisal of contemporary economic problems.

Economics offers programs leading to both Hon. BA and Hon. BSc degrees.


Admission Information

  • Financial Economics or Economics & Mathematics
    • Apply to the Physical and Mathematical Sciences admission category on the St. George campus
    • Six Grade 12 U or M courses, including English and Calculus and Vectors are required
  • Economics or Environmental Economics
    • Apply to the Social Sciences admission category on the St. George campus
    • Six Grade 12 U or M courses, including English are required
    • Calculus and Vectors is required


Honours Bachelor Arts Programs

  • Economics (specialist, major and minor options)
  • Environmental Economics (minor)


Honours Bachelor of Science Programs

  • Financial Economics (specialist)
  • Economics & Mathematics (specialist)


First-Year Courses

  • ECO 100Y1 - Introduction to Economics
  • MAT 133Y1 - Calculus and Linear Algebra for Commerce
  • MAT 135H1 - Calculus I(A)
  • MAT 136H1 - Calculus I(B)
  • MAT 137Y1 - Calculus
  • MAT 157Y1 – Analysis I


Advice for First Year

Students intending to complete a minor, major or specialist program in any of the above programs must take two key courses:

  • Introductory Economics:  ECO 100Y1 is the relevant course for any student planning to enroll in an economics program. Students intending to study International Relations, Peace and Conflict Studies or Employment Relations, may take ECO 105Y1 instead.
  • First-Year Calculus:  All economics programs build on first year mathematics, with greater mathematical content in the specialist programs. Students planning to enroll in the Specialist program must take MAT 135H and MAT136H, or MAT 137Y. Similarly, students interested in Financial Economics should take either MAT135H and MAT136H, or MAT137Y. MAT 137Y is the minimum level of first year calculus for those interested in the joint specialist program in Economics & Mathematics. Students planning to major or minor in economics, or to take second-year or higher courses in economics, should take MAT133Y (or higher).


All programs in economics offer solid training for a variety of career opportunities.

The specialist programs prepare students for employment in business or government, or for graduate studies in economics, business and law.

Economics programs can be combined with many other disciplines (e.g., computer science, political science, geography, philosophy, sociology) to provide a strong economics background for students interested in careers in these areas.

Direct career options include:

Bank manager Loan officer
Economist Management consultant
Economic development officer Market research analyst
Financial research analyst Public policy analyst
International relations officer Public relations
Investment analyst Quantitative analyst



Learn more about the Faculty of Arts & Science by reading our Viewbook


First Year